Archive for May, 2011

Raspberry Ketone

May 4, 2011

What are Raspberry Ketones?

In plants, raspberry ketone is synthesized from coumaroyl-CoA. Extraction of pure raspberry ketone is usually 1-4 mg per kg of raspberries, therefore eating raspberries or raspberry seed, leaf or fruit extracts will not yield enough of the metabolic boosting properties. The natural abundance of raspberry ketone is very low, which makes it difficult to obtain a high ketone yield in a fruit, seed, or leaf extract. The
preferred form is a synthetically produced raspberry ketone powder. This is prepared synthetically by a variety of methods from various intermediates. One of the ways this can be done is through a crossed aldol-catalytic hydrogenation, then goes through catalytic hydrogenation to produce raspberry ketone. This method produces a 99% yield. It is used extensively as food additives and the cosmetic industry. In 1965, the Food and Drug Administration placed raspberry ketone on generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.

A raspberry extract from the seed, leaf or fruit makes a very good anti-oxidant, but lacks the metabolism boosting properties of a pure white raspberry ketone powder. To put into perspective, to obtain 250mg of pure raspberry ketone, one would be required to consume between 60-500lbs of raspberries, (ketone content is dependant on harvesting times), To obtain 250mg raspberry ketone from a
simple raspberry ellagic standardized extract one would have to consume 100-300 capsules
of even the highest quality ellagic extract. Raspberry products that state an ellagic content are extracts and are anti-oxidants, which yield minimal metabolic boosting properties. We’ve seen these extracts being called raspberry ketone on the market and this method of marketing is not accurate. To determine if you have pure raspberry ketone versus an extract, an extract will be a darker
reddish and sometimes brown powder, the purer the material the more white it will be. The purest form will be white to slightly off-white
in the form of crystal needles.

When given to mice in high doses (up to 2% of food intake), raspberry ketone has been shown to prevent high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight. This effect is reported to stem from the alteration of lipid metabolism, increasing norepinephrine-induced lipolysis (fat loss). Although products containing this compound are marketed for weight loss, this effect has not been studied in humans.

For 5 years Superior Nutraceuticals has been carrying a pure Raspberry Ketone product in powder and capsule form. The powder is a greater value offering 200 days of usage, and the capsules @ 60 days. While many companies carry a variety of raspberry extract products, the only companies that are currently carrying a true raspberry ‘ketone’ product are Superior Nutraceuticals, Serious Nutrition Solutions RK-125 and RK500, and Nutraplanet.


Raspberry Ketone Powder

is best used in 500mg (1 scoop) dose per day with a meal. 1 scoop of powder mixed with a small amount of juice is recommended, grapefruit juice is ideal. Some individuals may find half a scoop (250mg) twice daily to be better. The powder is not highly soluble in liquid so therefore it’s best to mix the powder in a small amount of juice and drink. Letting the cocktail sit can cause the powder to settle leaving residue in the bottom of the container. 100 Grams of Raspberry Ketone powder should last 200 days at 500mg daily.


Raspberry Ketone Capsules
are best used in 250-500mg doses (1-2 capsules) with meals once daily. If using twice daily go with the lower dose range. Do not exceed 2 x 500mg doses in a single day. 1 bottle of raspberry Ketone Capsules should last 60 days at 500mg (2 capsules) daily. While not as much of a bargain as the powder the capsules can be convenient.

Other Recommendations
Due to Raspberry Ketones action on free fatty acids, the ideal accompanying diet would be one of lower glycemic carbohydrate, higher protein and low to moderate healthy fats, in the form of fish oil, extra virgin olive oil, or macadamia nut oil. While being careful to maintain calories under your base metabolic requirements.

Mechanism of action
Raspberry Ketones are similar in structure to synephrine and capsaicin, which are both noted as being thermogenic due to their release of norepinephrine. Norepinehrine increases lipolysis (which means the breakdown of white fat cells), enhances focus and attentiveness, and suppresses appetite.

Norephinephrine
As a stress hormone, norepinephrine affects parts of the brain where attention and responding actions are controlled. Along with epinephrine, norepinephrine also underlies the fight-or-flight response, directly increasing heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle.

Triglycerides are transported through the blood to appropriate tissues (adipose, muscle, etc) by lipoproteins such as chylomicrons. Triglycerides present on the chylomicrons undergo lipolysis by the cellular lipases of target tissues which yield glycerol and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids released into the blood are then available for cellular uptake. Free fatty acids not immediately taken up by cells may bind to albumin for transport to surrounding tissues that require energy.

Lipase
is an enzyme necessary for the absorption and digestion of nutrients in the intestines. This digestive enzyme is responsible for breaking down lipids (fats), in particular triglycerides, which are fatty substances in the body that come from fat in the diet. Once broken down into smaller components, triglycerides are more easily absorbed in the intestines. Lipase is primarily produced in the pancreas, but is also produced in the mouth and stomach. Lipases also act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of lipid substrate (A1, A2 or A3). For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme to break down fats in the human digestive system, converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oil to monoglycerides and free fatty acids.

In Conclusion, Raspberry Ketones trigger a reaction throughout the body. Once ingested by the body, Raspberry Ketones trigger a norepinephrine release. This causes the release of glucose from energy stores and increases the breakdown of triglycerides into free fatty acids. Once this has been completed Lipase takes over and breaks down the fats allowing them to be digested by the intestines. With this taking place your body will need to release more free fatty acids for energy since what was stored is now being burned.

Safety
In 1965, the Food and Drug Administration placed raspberry ketone on generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Raspberry Ketones became popular in the bodybuilding subculture back in 2005, but has not gained wide popularity until 2010. More recently, Dr. Oz stated Raspberry Ketones high on his list of effective metabolism boosters, and assured their safety profile when used as recommended.

They may be found on the web at


Pure Raspberry Ketone
(Powder and Capsules)

Amazon
Capsules
, Powder


Ebay
(Powder and Capsules)